**Reasearch Association**

Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.

Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of chemistry currently available, with hundreds of chemistry problems that cover everything from atomic theory and quantum chemistry to electrochemistry and nuclear chemistry. Each problem is clearly solved with step-by-step detailed solutions.

- The PROBLEM SOLVERS are unique - the ultimate in study guides.

- They are ideal for helping students cope with the toughest subjects.

- They greatly simplify study and learning tasks.

- They enable students to come to grips with difficult problems by showing them the way, step-by-step, toward solving problems. As a result, they save hours of frustration and time spent on groping for answers and understanding.

- They cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced in each subject.

- They work exceptionally well with any text in its field.

- PROBLEM SOLVERS are available in popular subjects.

- Each PROBLEM SOLVER is prepared by supremely knowledgeable experts.

- Most are over 1000 pages.

- PROBLEM SOLVERS are not meant to be read cover to cover. They offer whatever may be needed at a given time. An excellent index helps to locate specific problems rapidly.

Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of chemistry currently available, with hundreds of chemistry problems that cover everything from atomic theory and quantum chemistry to electrochemistry and nuclear chemistry. Each problem is clearly solved with step-by-step detailed solutions.

**DETAILS**- The PROBLEM SOLVERS are unique - the ultimate in study guides.

- They are ideal for helping students cope with the toughest subjects.

- They greatly simplify study and learning tasks.

- They enable students to come to grips with difficult problems by showing them the way, step-by-step, toward solving problems. As a result, they save hours of frustration and time spent on groping for answers and understanding.

- They cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced in each subject.

- They work exceptionally well with any text in its field.

- PROBLEM SOLVERS are available in popular subjects.

- Each PROBLEM SOLVER is prepared by supremely knowledgeable experts.

- Most are over 1000 pages.

- PROBLEM SOLVERS are not meant to be read cover to cover. They offer whatever may be needed at a given time. An excellent index helps to locate specific problems rapidly.

**Baker & Taylor**

Provides each kind of problem that might appear on an examination, and includes detailed solutions

**Publisher Group West**

Each Problem Solver is an insightful and essential study and solution guide chock-full of clear, concise problem-solving gems. All your questions can be found in one convenient source from one of the most trusted names in reference solution guides. More useful, more practical, and more informative, these study aids are the best review books and textbook companions available. Nothing remotely as comprehensive or as helpful exists in their subject anywhere. Perfect for undergraduate and graduate studies.

Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of chemistry currently available, with hundreds of chemistry problems that cover everything from atomic theory and quantum chemistry to electrochemistry and nuclear chemistry. Each problem is clearly solved with step-by-step detailed solutions.

- The PROBLEM SOLVERS are unique - the ultimate in study guides.

- They are ideal for helping students cope with the toughest subjects.

- They greatly simplify study and learning tasks.

- They enable students to come to grips with difficult problems by showing them the way, step-by-step, toward solving problems. As a result, they save hours of frustration and time spent on groping for answers and understanding.

- They cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced in each subject.

- They work exceptionally well with any text in its field.

- PROBLEM SOLVERS are available in 41 subjects.

- Each PROBLEM SOLVER is prepared by supremely knowledgeable experts.

- Most are over 1000 pages.

- PROBLEM SOLVERS are not meant to be read cover to cover. They offer whatever may be needed at a given time. An excellent index helps to locate specific problems rapidly.

Introduction

Units Conversion Factors

Length

Area

Volume

Mass

Density

Temperature

Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Law of Gay-Lussac

Combined Gas Laws

Avogadro's Law - The Mole Concept

The Ideal Gas Law

Mole Fraction

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

Graham's Law of Gaseous Diffusion

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Atomic and Molecular Weights

Equivalent Weights

Chemical Composition - Weight and Volume Percent

Balancing Equations

Calculations Using Chemical Arithmetic

Wright-Weight Problems

Reactions with Limiting Reagents

Volume-Volume Problems

Weight-Volume Problems

Crystal Structure

Lattice Structures and Unit Cells

Phase Diagrams

Density

Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation

Raoult's Law and Vapor Pressure

Clausius-Clapeyron Equation of Vaporization

Osmotic Pressure

Surface Tension

Density and Formality

Molality

Molarity

Normality

Neutralization

The Equilibrium Constant

Equilibrium Calculations

The Shifting of Equilibrium-Le Chatelier's Principle

Acids and Bases

The Autoionization of Water

Autoprotolysis

pH

The Ionization Constant

The Dissociation Constant

The Hydrolysis Constant

Neutralization

Buffers

Indicators

Complex Ions

Electrolytes

The Rate Law

The Order of Reactions

Half-life

The Arrhenius Equations: Relating Temperature and Reaction Rate

Chain Reactions

Bond Energies

Heat Capacity

Enthalpy

Enthalpy Calculations Using the First Law of Thermodynamics

Heats of Fusion and Vaporization

Entropy

Free Energy

Equilibrium Calculations

Conduction

Equivalent Weight

Redox Reactions

>Faraday's Law of Electrolytes

Electrode Potential

Electrochemical Cell Reactions

Nernst Equation

Atomic Weight

Valence and Electron Dot Diagrams

Ionic and Covalent Bonding

Electronegativity

Bond Length and Angles

Polarity of Bonds

Pauli Exclusion Principle, Hund's Rule Electronic Configuration

Molecular Orbital Theory

Early Quantum Chemistry

The Bohr Atom

The de Brogle Equation

Wave Functions

Atomic Spectroscopy

Alkanes

Alkenes and Alkynes

Alcohols

Other Functional Groups

Alkanes

Alkenes and Alkynes

Alcohols

Other Functional Groups

Cellular Construction and Dimensions

pH and pKa

Energy Conversion

Molecular Weights, Mole Ratios, Densities and Monomer Units

Physical Aspects of Biochemistry

Proteins

Enzymes

Carbohydrates

Nucleic Acids

Students have generally found chemistry a difficult subject to understand and learn. Despite the publication of hundreds of textbooks in this field, each one intended to provide an improvement over previous textbooks, students of chemistry continue to remain perplexed as a result of numerous subject areas that must be remembered and correlated when solving problems. Various interpretations of chemistry terms also contribute to the difficulties of mastering the subject.

In a study of chemistry, REA found the following basic reasons underlying the inherent difficulties of chemistry:

No systematic rules of analysis were ever developed to follow in a step-by-step manner to solve typically encountered problems. This results from numerous different conditions and principles involved in a problem that leads to many possible different solution methods. To prescribe a set of rules for each of the possible variations would involve an enormous number of additional steps, making this task more burdensome than solving the problem directly due to the expectation of much trial and error.

Current textbooks normally explain a given principle in a few pages written by a chemistry professional who has insight into the subject matter not shared by others. These explanations are often written in an abstract manner that causes confusion as to the principle's use and application. Explanations then are often not sufficiently detailed or extensive enough to make the reader aware of the wide range of applications and different aspects of the principle being studied. The numerous possible variations of principles and their applications are usually not discussed, and it is left to the reader to discover this while doing exercises. Accordingly, the average student is expected to rediscover that which has long been established and practiced, but not always published or adequately explained.

The examples typically following the explanation of a topic are too few in number and too simple to enable the student to obtain a thorough grasp of the involved principles. The explanations do not provide sufficient basis to solve problems that may be assigned for homework or given on examinations.

Poorly solved examples such as these can be presented in abbreviated form which leaves out much explanatory material between steps, and as a result requires the reader to figure out the missing information. This leaves the reader with an impression that the problems and even the subject are hard to learn - completely the opposite of what an example is supposed to do.

Poor examples are often worded in a confusing or obscure way. They might not state the nature of the problem or they present a solution, which appears to have no direct relation to the problem. These problems usually offer an overly general discussion - never revealing how or what is to be solved.

Many examples do not include accompanying diagrams or graphs, denying the reader the exposure necessary for drawing good diagrams and graphs. Such practice only strengthens understanding by simplifying and organizing chemistry processes.

Students can learn the subject only by doing the exercises themselves and reviewing them in class, obtaining experience in applying the principles with their different ramifications.

In doing the exercises by themselves, students find that they are required to devote considerable more time to chemistry than to other subjects, because they are uncertain with regard to the selection and application of the theorems and principles involved. It is also often necessary for students to discover those "tricks" not revealed in their texts (or review books) that make it possible to solve problems easily. Students must usually resort to methods of trial and error to discover these "tricks," therefore finding out that they may sometimes spend several hours to solve a single problem.

When reviewing the exercises in classrooms, instructors usually request students to take turns in writing solutions on the boards and explaining them to the class. Students often find it difficult to explain in a manner that holds the interest of the class, and enables the remaining students to follow the material written on the boards. The remaining students in the class are thus too occupied with copying the material off the boards to follow the professor's explanations.

This book is intended to aid students in chemistry overcome the difficulties described by supplying detailed illustrations of the solution methods that are usually not apparent to students. Solution methods are illustrated by problems that have been selected from those most often assigned for class work and given on examinations. The problems are arranged in order of complexity to enable students to learn and understand a particular topic by reviewing the problems in sequence. The problems are illustrated with detailed, step-by-step explanations, to save the students large amounts of time that is often needed to fill in the gaps that are usually found between steps of illustrations in textbooks or review/outline books.

The staff of REA considers chemistry a subject that is best learned by allowing students to view the methods of analysis and solution techniques. This learning approach is similar to that practiced in various scientific laboratories, particularly in the medical fields.

In using this book, students may review and study the illustrated problems at their own pace; students are not limited to the time such problems receive in the classroom.

When students want to look up a particular type of problem and solution, they can readily locate it in the book by referring to the index that has been extensively prepared. It is also possible to locate a particular type of problem by glancing at just the material within the boxed portions. Each problem is numbered and surrounded by a heavy black border for speedy identification.

Here in this highly useful reference is the finest overview of chemistry currently available, with hundreds of chemistry problems that cover everything from atomic theory and quantum chemistry to electrochemistry and nuclear chemistry. Each problem is clearly solved with step-by-step detailed solutions.

**DETAILS**- The PROBLEM SOLVERS are unique - the ultimate in study guides.

- They are ideal for helping students cope with the toughest subjects.

- They greatly simplify study and learning tasks.

- They enable students to come to grips with difficult problems by showing them the way, step-by-step, toward solving problems. As a result, they save hours of frustration and time spent on groping for answers and understanding.

- They cover material ranging from the elementary to the advanced in each subject.

- They work exceptionally well with any text in its field.

- PROBLEM SOLVERS are available in 41 subjects.

- Each PROBLEM SOLVER is prepared by supremely knowledgeable experts.

- Most are over 1000 pages.

- PROBLEM SOLVERS are not meant to be read cover to cover. They offer whatever may be needed at a given time. An excellent index helps to locate specific problems rapidly.

**TABLE OF CONTENTS**Introduction

Units Conversion Factors

**Chapter 1: Units of Measurement**Length

Area

Volume

Mass

Density

Temperature

**Chapter 2: Gases**Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, Law of Gay-Lussac

Combined Gas Laws

Avogadro's Law - The Mole Concept

The Ideal Gas Law

**Chapter 3: Gas Mixtures and Other Physical Properties of Gases**Mole Fraction

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

Graham's Law of Gaseous Diffusion

Kinetic Theory of Gases

**Chapter 4: Avogadro's Hypothesis; Chemical Compounds and Formulas**Atomic and Molecular Weights

Equivalent Weights

Chemical Composition - Weight and Volume Percent

**Chapter 5: Stoichiometry/Weight and Volume Calculations**Balancing Equations

Calculations Using Chemical Arithmetic

Wright-Weight Problems

Reactions with Limiting Reagents

Volume-Volume Problems

Weight-Volume Problems

**Chapter 6: Solids**Crystal Structure

Lattice Structures and Unit Cells

Phase Diagrams

**Chapter 7: Properties of Liquids**Density

Freezing Point Depression and Boiling Point Elevation

Raoult's Law and Vapor Pressure

Clausius-Clapeyron Equation of Vaporization

Osmotic Pressure

Surface Tension

**Chapter 8: Solution Chemistry**Density and Formality

Molality

Molarity

Normality

Neutralization

**Chapter 9: Equilibrium**The Equilibrium Constant

Equilibrium Calculations

The Shifting of Equilibrium-Le Chatelier's Principle

**Chapter 10: Acid-Base Equilibria**Acids and Bases

The Autoionization of Water

Autoprotolysis

pH

The Ionization Constant

The Dissociation Constant

The Hydrolysis Constant

Neutralization

Buffers

Indicators

Complex Ions

Electrolytes

**Chapter 11: Solubility and the Ion Product Constant****Chapter 12: Calculations using pH and the Dissociation Constant****Chapter 13: Chemical Kinetics**The Rate Law

The Order of Reactions

Half-life

The Arrhenius Equations: Relating Temperature and Reaction Rate

Chain Reactions

**Chapter 14: Thermodynamics I**Bond Energies

Heat Capacity

Enthalpy

Enthalpy Calculations Using the First Law of Thermodynamics

Heats of Fusion and Vaporization

**Chapter 15: Thermodynamics II**Entropy

Free Energy

Equilibrium Calculations

**Chapter 16: Electrochemistry**Conduction

Equivalent Weight

Redox Reactions

>Faraday's Law of Electrolytes

Electrode Potential

Electrochemical Cell Reactions

Nernst Equation

**Chapter 17: Atomic Theory**Atomic Weight

Valence and Electron Dot Diagrams

Ionic and Covalent Bonding

Electronegativity

Bond Length and Angles

Polarity of Bonds

**Chapter 18: Quantum Chemistry**Pauli Exclusion Principle, Hund's Rule Electronic Configuration

Molecular Orbital Theory

Early Quantum Chemistry

The Bohr Atom

The de Brogle Equation

Wave Functions

Atomic Spectroscopy

**Chapter 19: Nuclear Chemistry****Chapter 20: Organic Chemistry I: Nomenclature and Structure**Alkanes

Alkenes and Alkynes

Alcohols

Other Functional Groups

**Chapter 21: Organic Chemistry II: Reactions**Alkanes

Alkenes and Alkynes

Alcohols

Other Functional Groups

**Chapter 22: Biochemistry I**Cellular Construction and Dimensions

pH and pKa

Energy Conversion

Molecular Weights, Mole Ratios, Densities and Monomer Units

Physical Aspects of Biochemistry

**Chapter 23: Biochemistry II**Proteins

Enzymes

Carbohydrates

Nucleic Acids

**Chapter 24: Applied Pollution / Environmental Problems****Chapter 25: Applied Gas and Gas Mixture Problems****Chapter 26: Applied Liquid and Solution Problems****Chapter 27: Applied Stoichiometry Problems****Chapter 28: Applied Thermochemistry Problems****Chapter 29: Applied Energy Problems****Chapter 30: Applied Wave Phenomena Problems****Chapter 31: Applied Organic and Polymer Chemistry Problems****Chapter 32: Applied Biological Problems****Index****WHAT THIS BOOK IS FOR**Students have generally found chemistry a difficult subject to understand and learn. Despite the publication of hundreds of textbooks in this field, each one intended to provide an improvement over previous textbooks, students of chemistry continue to remain perplexed as a result of numerous subject areas that must be remembered and correlated when solving problems. Various interpretations of chemistry terms also contribute to the difficulties of mastering the subject.

In a study of chemistry, REA found the following basic reasons underlying the inherent difficulties of chemistry:

No systematic rules of analysis were ever developed to follow in a step-by-step manner to solve typically encountered problems. This results from numerous different conditions and principles involved in a problem that leads to many possible different solution methods. To prescribe a set of rules for each of the possible variations would involve an enormous number of additional steps, making this task more burdensome than solving the problem directly due to the expectation of much trial and error.

Current textbooks normally explain a given principle in a few pages written by a chemistry professional who has insight into the subject matter not shared by others. These explanations are often written in an abstract manner that causes confusion as to the principle's use and application. Explanations then are often not sufficiently detailed or extensive enough to make the reader aware of the wide range of applications and different aspects of the principle being studied. The numerous possible variations of principles and their applications are usually not discussed, and it is left to the reader to discover this while doing exercises. Accordingly, the average student is expected to rediscover that which has long been established and practiced, but not always published or adequately explained.

The examples typically following the explanation of a topic are too few in number and too simple to enable the student to obtain a thorough grasp of the involved principles. The explanations do not provide sufficient basis to solve problems that may be assigned for homework or given on examinations.

Poorly solved examples such as these can be presented in abbreviated form which leaves out much explanatory material between steps, and as a result requires the reader to figure out the missing information. This leaves the reader with an impression that the problems and even the subject are hard to learn - completely the opposite of what an example is supposed to do.

Poor examples are often worded in a confusing or obscure way. They might not state the nature of the problem or they present a solution, which appears to have no direct relation to the problem. These problems usually offer an overly general discussion - never revealing how or what is to be solved.

Many examples do not include accompanying diagrams or graphs, denying the reader the exposure necessary for drawing good diagrams and graphs. Such practice only strengthens understanding by simplifying and organizing chemistry processes.

Students can learn the subject only by doing the exercises themselves and reviewing them in class, obtaining experience in applying the principles with their different ramifications.

In doing the exercises by themselves, students find that they are required to devote considerable more time to chemistry than to other subjects, because they are uncertain with regard to the selection and application of the theorems and principles involved. It is also often necessary for students to discover those "tricks" not revealed in their texts (or review books) that make it possible to solve problems easily. Students must usually resort to methods of trial and error to discover these "tricks," therefore finding out that they may sometimes spend several hours to solve a single problem.

When reviewing the exercises in classrooms, instructors usually request students to take turns in writing solutions on the boards and explaining them to the class. Students often find it difficult to explain in a manner that holds the interest of the class, and enables the remaining students to follow the material written on the boards. The remaining students in the class are thus too occupied with copying the material off the boards to follow the professor's explanations.

This book is intended to aid students in chemistry overcome the difficulties described by supplying detailed illustrations of the solution methods that are usually not apparent to students. Solution methods are illustrated by problems that have been selected from those most often assigned for class work and given on examinations. The problems are arranged in order of complexity to enable students to learn and understand a particular topic by reviewing the problems in sequence. The problems are illustrated with detailed, step-by-step explanations, to save the students large amounts of time that is often needed to fill in the gaps that are usually found between steps of illustrations in textbooks or review/outline books.

The staff of REA considers chemistry a subject that is best learned by allowing students to view the methods of analysis and solution techniques. This learning approach is similar to that practiced in various scientific laboratories, particularly in the medical fields.

In using this book, students may review and study the illustrated problems at their own pace; students are not limited to the time such problems receive in the classroom.

When students want to look up a particular type of problem and solution, they can readily locate it in the book by referring to the index that has been extensively prepared. It is also possible to locate a particular type of problem by glancing at just the material within the boxed portions. Each problem is numbered and surrounded by a heavy black border for speedy identification.

Publisher:
Piscataway, NJ : Research & Education Association, 2010

ISBN:
9780878915095

0878915095

0878915095

Characteristics:
xvii, 944 p. : ill. ; 26 cm

Additional Contributors:

Alternative Title:
The chemistry solver: a complete guide to any textbook

Chemistry

Chemistry

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