Miners Strike in Johannesburg, South Africa Ca. 1922
In 1922 white labor unions in South Africa staged massive strikes to protest the use of black labor in South African mines. In an attempt to break up the strikes, Prime Minister Jan Christiaan Smuts ordered police to attack the striking workers and ordered the bombing of a union office, killing 200. The harsh tactics only increased the unions' militancy. Ironically, the labor shortage that the strikes caused led to more black workers filling the vacancies, though black employees worked for starvation wages and performed the most dangerous tasks.